Updated August 29th, 2017
Mortar is a composition of water, fine aggregate and binding material. It is a workable plastic paste and used to hold stone and brick or block together. We use various types of mortar for various purpose in construction sector.
Types of Mortar Used in Building Construction
Mortar is classified based on following:
1. Nature of application of mortar
2. Bulk density of dry mortar
3. Binding materials used in mortar
4. Purpose of the use of mortar
1. Nature of application
Based on nature of application, mortar is divided into two types –
1a. Stone or brick laying mortar
1b. Finishing mortar
1a. Stone or brick laying mortar: When we make brick wall on floor we often use this type of mortar. The proportion of ingredients of this type depend on the binding materials used to make mortar.
1b. Finishing mortar: For general plastering and pointing work, we use this type of mortar. Cement and lime are normally used as binding material for this type.
2. Bulk density of mortar
Based on bulk density of dry mortar it is divided into two types –
. Heavyweight mortar
. Lightweight mortar
. Heavyweight mortar: If the bulk density of dry mortar is 15 kn/m3 and above then it heavyweight mortar or heavy mortar. Heavy quartz fine aggregate are generally used in this types of mortar.
. Lightweight mortar: When the bulk density of dry mortar is below 15 kn/m3 then it as lightweight mortar. Normally light porous sand to produce this type of mortar.
3. Based on building material
Mortar is more often named as binding material used in the mortar. It is five types based on binding materials used to produce it.
. Cement mortar
. Lime mortar
. Gypsum mortar
. Gauged mortar
. Aerated cement mortar
. Cement mortar: Cement and sand in this type of mortar as binding material and fine aggregate . The proportion of cement and sand from 1:2 to 1:6.
. Lime mortar: lime as binding material in this type of mortar. There are two types of lime are normally used in this type. Fat lime and hydraulic lime. Generally, fat lime and sand is 1:2 or 1:3. Commonly used proportion of hydraulic lime & sand is 1:2.
. Gypsum mortar: This type of mortar from gypsum and mostly used in ancient structure.
. Gauged mortar: There are two binding materials, lime and cement, to produce this type of mortar. Lime has high plasticity and cement has high strength, mixing both produce mortar which is strong, durable and economic.
. mortar: In this type of mortar as fine aggregate. Sometimes sand is also mixed with . And most commonly lime as binding material.
. Aerated cement mortar: If the admixture with cement mortar than it Aerated cement mortar. The admixture is mainly mixed to make the mortar mire plastic and workable.
4. Special purpose mortar
Depending on purpose of uses mortar is classified as following types –
. Sound absorbing mortar
. Fire resistant mortar
. X-Ray shielding mortar
. Chemical resistant mortar
. Packing mortar
. Lightweight mortar
. Sound absorbing mortar: This type of mortar reducing noise level. Cement, lime, gypsum, slag, pumice cinders etc are commonly used as ingredient of this type of mortar.
. Fire resistant mortar: when a layer of mortar as fireproof shield then it fire resistant mortar. By adding cement to powder of fire bricks this type of mortar .
. X-Ray shielding mortar: This is the heavyweight type of mortar. The bulk density of this type of mortar is around 22 kn/m3. This type of mortar is mainly used on x-ray room’s wall and ceiling as a shield to prevent bad effect of x-rays.
. Chemical resistant mortar: By adding some special admixture with mortar this type of mortar . It is mainly used to protect structure from chemical attack.
. Packing mortar: Packing the oil well this type of mortar . The constituents of this type of mortar is cement & sand, cement & loam or sometimes cement, sand & loam.
. Lightweight mortar: This type of mortar as sound proof and shield. By adding saw dust, jute fiber and wood powder to the lime mortar or cement mortar this type of mortar is produced.