Updated July 8th, 2019
A building is consists of many structural components. Generally, structural components are divided into two categories-
i) Substructure and
The structure below ground level is called substructure. It can be divided into two parts- a) Foundation and b) Plinth
The most lower part of the building. The main function of the foundation is to transfer loads to the sub-soil. It is the most important part of a structure. Most of the failure of a structure may happen due to foundation failure. Foundation should be strong enough to meet the following requirements-
It should be strong enough to distribute the load to sub-soil.
It is capable to support structure.Read More: Types of Foundation
The part between the surrounding ground level and ground floor of the building is called plinth. The purposes of the plinth are-
- Transfer the incoming load from superstructure to the foundation.
- Provide damp proof to the building
- Support the backfilling as a retaining wall.
- Plinth also increases the esthetical look of the building.
Keep in mind that, sometimes, plinth isn’t considered as substructure and count it as an individual part of a structure.
The part above plinth level is called superstructure. It contains many other structural components. Such as-
Lintel and sunshade
Step and stair
Wall: Wall is used to separate the usable area of a floor for different purposes. Such as bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen, living, etc. Another prime purpose of walls is to provide privacy and security.
Floor: The main purpose of a floor is to provide better living space and support of occupants, furniture and other equipment of a building. The purpose of making different floors at different levels of a building is to create more accommodation within limited space. A floor should be strong, durable, damp prove and heat protected.
Lintel and Sunshade: Lintel is provided for the purpose of supporting a wall above the door or window opening. A sunshade is generally combined with a lintel above window opening to protect rain and sun.
Read More: Types of RCC Lintel
Step and Stair: Stair is made for easy communication among various floors of a building. Stair consists of steps. steps height should be comfortable enough for vertical movement.
Roof: The topmost part of a building is the roof. The roof is built for the purpose of enclosing and protect the living area/floor area from the weathering effect. A roof should be stable, durable and weather resistant.
There are also other structural parts of a building. Such as water tank, septic tank, and parapet, etc. Septic tank and the underground water tank is completely separate structural part and not included in the structure of a building. But, parapet and overhead water tank are parts of the structure of a building
Are there any other structural parts of a building? Please share in the comments below…