Updated May 26th, 2019

Nowadays, most of the modern construction companies use computer-aided software for their estimating and costing solution. But we often estimate materials on a project manually for purchasing purpose.

When we need to cast concrete members of a building, we either use ready-mix concrete or prepare the concrete manually on site based on the mix design.

Mix design is commonly referred to the mix proportion of concrete ingredients.

The question is, **how do we calculate concrete ingredients for different-ratio concrete?**

## How to Estimate Materials for Different Ratio Concrete?

The most common ratio of concrete ingredients used in a building construction project is **1:1½:3** and **1:2:4**.

When we mix cement, sand and stone chips at **1:1½:3** ratio, the concrete strength of **28** days cylinder test result comes around **3500** psi. If we mix cement, sand and brick chips at 1:2:4 ratio the 28 days cylinder test result will come around **3000** psi. However, the concrete strength mostly depends on the quality of materials used to prepare concrete.

When we prepare concrete on site we need to measure the concrete ingredients separately based on the proportion specified in the mix design.

I will show you how to estimate concrete ingredients for **1:1½:3** proportion. After learning this process you will be able to estimate materials for any concrete proportion.

**100**cubic feet concrete of

**1:1½:3**ratio-

**100**cubic feet.

So, the dry volume of concrete is,

= 100 x 1.54 = **154** cubic feet.

[*1.54 is a factor used to convert the wet volume of concrete to the dry volume of concrete. I’ve talked about this before on the post “what is the dry volume of concrete“*]

Sum of ratio 1:1½:3= **5.5**.

**So, the required Cement is**,

= (154÷5.5) x 1

=**28** cubic feet.

**The required quantity of Sand is,**

= (154÷5.5) x 1.5

= **42** cubic feet.

**The required Stone chips are,**

= (154÷5.5) x 3

= **84** cubic feet.

As we know, Cement is available as 50-kilo bag in the market and the volume of 50-kilo cement bag is **1¼** cubic feet. So the required cement is **28** divided by **1¼** equal to **22.4** bags.

**Summary****:**

Cement- **22.4** bags,

Sand- **42** cubic feet,

Stone chips- **84** cubic feet.

*Read More:*

How to Estimate Materials for 5″ Thick Brick Wall

How to Estimate Ingredients for 3″ Brick Masonry Wall?

In this estimation, I use **cubic feet** as the concrete measuring unit. If you want to use the **cubic meter**, the same method can be applied. But that will be time-consuming.

The easiest way to estimate concrete materials for the different unit is to apply the above result as a percentage. That means, *Cement *content for **100** unit of **1:1½:3** ratio concrete is **28%** (unit will be same as the concrete unit), *Sand *is **42%** and *Stone chips *is **84%**.

Now let’s calculate the required **water content** for preparing concrete. Suppose, the water-cement ratio for concrete is specified **0.45**. That means, water/cement = 0.45, or W/C = **0.45**.

**For one bag of cement, the required water is,**

=0.45 x 1.25 (*as we know, 1 bag cement equal to 1.25 cubic feet*),

=**0.5625** cubic feet.

We know one cubic feet water is equal to **28.31685** liters,

So the required water is,

= 0.5625 x 28.31685

=15.92 liter

say, 16 liters.

So, preparing concrete with one bag of cement, the required water content is 16 liters for 0.45 w/c.

That’s it.

**Share Your Expertise**

How do you calculate concrete ingredients on site? Please share in the comments below…

Bangaldesh says

How to calculate cement & sand for plastering in any specific area in BANGLADESH ? plz show in details

Samynadu says

Length(3 m) x breadth(3 m) x thickness (12 mm)then calculate result in cement mortor,one cum (calculate cement in bass and Sand in satti ) set result

Ananta Halder says

Its reallu helpful

Thanks a lot

Ali Raza says

Please provide me calculation of steel bars as same above detail is below

RCC Slab 100'x150'x6" and main bars 6# 6"c/c and dis bars 4# 8"c/c

thanks

Md. Al- Amin says

Thank you so much

Md. Al- Amin says

Please tell me how to estimate rod for rcc work

md siraj says

1400 sqf Rcc roof estimates cemmet , sand , aggregate & rod (sariya )

kaosar alam says

thanks a lot

Sreehari Chidambaran says

How can we design the reinforcement for a slabs,columns and beams?

arul sunil says

Please provide me calculation of steel bars as same above detail is below

RCC Slab 100'x150'x6" and main bars 6# 6"c/c and dis bars 4# 8"c/c

arul sunil says

Please provide me calculation of steel bars as same above detail is below

RCC Slab 100'x150'x6" and main bars 6# 6"c/c and dis bars 4# 8"c/c

foam generator manfacturer india says

yes use full article for construction of a house sir we are leading manufacturers of the light weight eco friendly bricks making machinery. clc bricks machinery

Niranjan Naidu says

Please provide me calculation of 120 m3 sand

Niranjan Naidu says

Please provide me calculation of 120 m3 sand

Jacqueline Leigh says

Interesting and helpful (I think) but please improve the English so it is easier to read!

farhan says

Very useful..thank a lot sir

Unknown says

Thanks frnd

satheesh sathee says

how many cement bag pcc concrete 1:2:4ratio cft?

Aadil Bashir says

This comment has been removed by the author.

Aadil Bashir says

This comment has been removed by the author.

Aadil Bashir says

This comment has been removed by the author.

Aadil Bashir says

the formula of calculating the steel weight is d^2/162

d is the diameter of bar

so if you have a bar which is having 10mm dia the weight of steel rod per metre will be .617kg per metre

Density (rho) of steel. 7850 kg/m3

Rossano Del Castillo says

AADIL BASHIR,Feb.6,2016

your computation is simplified and easy to understand, however I'm interested to know what is the figure of 1.54 stands for when multiplied by 100(wet volume of concrete)

the get the dry volume of concrete.Thank you.

sree pandu says

how much amount of water we will add for 150×150×150mm cube if the water cement ratio is 0.45 I want in kgs

Waqas Javed says

1.54 is constant

JEYAPRABU T says

100 cft sand how many bags cement in ratio of 1:2:4

Unknown says

if you got the answer plz share with me. thank you

Unknown says

cement:sand:crush 100cft(wet) & 154 cft(dry)

22:44:88

22/1.25=17.6 cement bags

mohd hossain says

khoob valoo laglo sob pore

Shan mustafa says

How to calculate roof slab quantatity of metal sand cement agrigate in feet please

Vishwa Nath Pratap Singh says

How to calculate metalic hardnet topping cement factore Sqm/Per kg …

Unknown says

thanks a lot for all your posts.You are indeed great for sharing/simplifying knowledge with the world

Osmond Ikwueme says

thanks a lot for all your posts.You are indeed great for sharing/simplifying knowledge with the world

ikram says

plz snd me u email Add

fazal mengal says

plz tell me 1:2:4 ratio water scale

fazal mengal says

plz tell me 1:2:4 ratio water scale

Nabeel Ali says

why we take 1.54 for dry material? please proof it.

Nabeel Ali says

why we take 1.54 for dry material? please proof it.

Unknown says

"1.54" 0.54 is basically shrinkage factor of wet material you want to convert in dry material. 33% is total shrinkage of mixed material so

1-0.33=0.67

1/0.67 = 1.492537

Wastage of Material is 3% during mixing etc.

0.03/0.67 = 0.044776

1.492537+0.044776 = 1.537313 say 1.54

Thanks

Asif Hussain says

"1.54" 0.54 is basically shrinkage factor of wet material you want to convert in dry material. 33% is total shrinkage of mixed material so

1-0.33=0.67

1/0.67 = 1.492537

Wastage of Material is 3% during mixing etc.

0.03/0.67 = 0.044776

1.492537+0.044776 = 1.537313 say 1.54

Thanks

mahroos says

thanks u asif sab

AKHLAQUE AHMAD says

plz provide the all formula meterial calculation.

Unknown says

Cement, Sand, 10mm, 20mm

1 1.635 1.657 2.031

Bulk Density/m3

1713.58 ———1566.67 1572.58

Crushed Sand—-CA 10MM ——–CA 20MM

So now in one m3 Dry material is ?????????

Naresh Vats says

Cement, Sand, 10mm, 20mm

1 1.635 1.657 2.031

Bulk Density/m3

1713.58 ———1566.67 1572.58

Crushed Sand—-CA 10MM ——–CA 20MM

So now in one m3 Dry material is ?????????

My Watsaap No. is 8007674322

Answer reply on it

Unknown says

Plz provide details about truss

Aadil Bashir says

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

Unknown says

thank you,,,,,

Rakib says

How can i calculate ratio from 4000 to 5000 psi concrete.

waseem Akram says

Plz tell me about that, Brick lintal quantity of Brick, sand, and any specific area and what use the ratio in Brick lintal?? plz anyone tell me about that

Billy Salva says

please tell me, how many days it will take if i will construct ten concrete column 450mm x 500mm, that include the excavtion, formwork, and steel frabrication.

thank you

Liton Biswas says

Thanks for your query, Billy.

Required Time for constructing column will depend on many things. Such as number of workers, instruments you are using to construct column, etc.

Asad Sarwar says

Plz somebody send me dry material chart in cft of diffrent construction works….

kiran k khadke says

estimate slab L=12.19m W=8.50m h=12cm sand in brass agg in brass and cement in no of bags

Mudassir Nazir says

Thank you

Liton Biswas says

☺

hanan mushtaq says

I need 12’x12′ slab with ACI code.please help me.

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Novelcon says

Can you pls help as to how to calculate the Cubic meter requirement based on the percentage formulation available of a premix concrete or Dry Microconcrete

eg: Cement 40%

sand(5mmDown) 30%

powder Admixture 2%

Silica fume 2%

Fly ash 10%

Lime 2%

10mm Aggregate 14%

Total 100% And water to powder ratio of 0.45

Kinldy advise

Thanks in advance for your time

Liton Biswas says

Hi Novelcon,

If I get you correctly, you asked how to calculate the required materials based on the percentage you specified here and the unit will in a cubic meter.

The rule is the same.

First, estimate the required concrete volume.

Second, convert that wet concrete volume into dry volume.

Finally, divide the dry volume based on your percentage.

I think it’ll help you.

If you have any doubt, don’t hesitate to let me know. I’ll try my best to help you.