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Types of Floor


Before knowing about the different types of floor, let's first see what is floor?

Floor is always define as a different level of a building.

In another word, In multi-story building, we divided the height of a building by a horizontal structure to make this a useable space at different level. This horizontal structure is the floor.

Types of Floor

There are various types of floor depending on the various criteria. But the most important types to understand is, based on the materials used to construct the floor.

Based on the materials used to build, floor can be classified into two categories -

  • Composite floor
  • Non-Composite floor

Composite Floor

When a floor is made with two or more constituent materials then it is called composite floor. This is done to reduce the cost of structure and getting more versatile structures.

Following are the Types of composite floor

  • RCC floor
  • Rib floor
  • Double Flag Stone floor
  • Jack Arch floor
  • Filler joist floor

RCC floor

RCC is the short form of reinforced cement concrete. This type of floor are widely used in modern construction world. RCC floor can be cast in-situ or precast.

The advantages of this type of floor

  • It is economical
  • It is durable
  • It is easy to construct, and
  • It is fire-proof.
Types of Floor,


Materials used to build RCC floor are -

  • Concrete
  • M.S. bar (mild steel bar)

Concrete: Concrete itself is a composite materials. It is composed of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Read more about concrete here.

MS bar: Ms bar is the short form of mild steel bar. Most of the time we call this reinforcement.

Rib floor

This type of floor is made with "rib" and "hollow block".

Rib is a RCC beam which is placed between the rows of hollow block. Clay hollow block or concrete hollow block are mostly used for this purpose.

Types of floor


Advantage of this type of floor

  • Rib floor is light weight
  • It is economical
  • It is fire-proof
  • It is sound proof


Double Flag Stone floor

Two layer of flagstones are used to build this type of floor, this is why it is called double flag stone floor.

Materials used to build this type of floor are -

  • Flagstone (about 40 mm thickness)
  • Rolled steel joist
  • Rolled Steel beam (for span above 4 meter)
Types of floor

The mechanism to build this floor is,
For span above 4 meter, a framework is built consist of rolled steel beam and rolled steel joist. To make formwork, beam are place at 10 feet centre to centre distance then joists are placedat right angle to the beam. And then two layers of flagstone are fixed with the joist. One layer is at top flanged of joist and another layer is at bottom flanged of joist. The gap between the two layers of flagstone is filled with earth or concrete before fixing the top layer of flagstone.

Jack arch floor

You'll find the following components/materials in this type of floor -

  • Arch (brick arch or concrete arch)
  • Rolled steel joist
  • Rolled steel beam
  • Wall
  • Tie rod

Types of Floor

Mechanism
Joists are placed on wall or beam and tied together with the tie rod. And then concrete arches or brick arches are constructedand rest on lower flanged of Joists.

Filler joist floor

Materials or components of this type of floor are

  • Rolled steel joist
  • Rolled steel beam
  • Concrete
  • Wall

Types of floor

Mechanism
In this type of floor Joists are surrounded by concrete and place on wall or rolled steel beam.

So far we have talked about composite floor. Now we will discuss about non-composite type of floor.


Non-Composite Floor

Non composite type of floors are those which are built using one material only. Mostly used material for non-composite floor is timber.

Timber floor can further be divided into 3 types
  • Single joist floor
  • Double joist floor
  • Tripple joist floor,

Before going further details of each type of timber floor, we need to be familiar with a few terms which are related to timber floor.

Floor board: Floor board are fixed at the top of bridging joist. It acts as the wearing of the top surface of the floor.

Floor ceiling: To make the bottom of the floor flat and increasing the aesthetic look floor ceiling is provided. For this purpose plaster board or sheet of asbestors or some other suitable materials are used. Floor ceiling rests on bridging joist. To make the ceiling more durable and strong ceiling joist may be provided at the right angle to the bridging joist.

Trimming: When opening are provided in floor then bridging joist can not rest on wall. In this situation trimming joists are provided.

Pugging plaster: It is a mixture of chopped straw and mortar. Pugging plaster fills the gap between floor board and insulation board. It is done to make the floor sound proof.

Types of floor, single joist timber floor, double joist timber floor

Single joist floor

In this type of floor single joist is placed below floor board. This joist is supported by wall-plate at both end.

Double joist floor

In this type of floor binders are provided to support the bridging joist. Binders are then rest on the walls at both end.

Tripple joist floor

Tripplle joist floor is also called framed timber floor. In this type of floor another member is added that is girder, which we didn't use in double joist floor. These girders are placed on the wall to support the binders. And then joist are placed on the binders.

In this post, I did not include floors which are built on ground as a type of floor. Because, I think, it does not need serious mechanism to build a floor on ground. Because there is a ground itself to support the floor.

However, whatever the types of floor, you should follow instruction as specified in building code in your country.

Your Turn:
I'm always eager to get new idea. So please share "how you construct floor" in the comments below....

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