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Types of Mortar Used in Civil Construction

Mortar is a composition of water, fine aggregate and binding material. It is a workable plastic paste and used to hold stone and brick or block together. We use various types of mortar for various purpose in construction sector.

Types of Mortar Used in Building Construction

Mortar is classified based on following:

1. Nature of application of mortar
2. Bulk density of dry mortar
3. Binding materials used in mortar
4. Purpose of the use of mortar

Types of mortar, Building Materials, Mortar for Masonry Work
Masonry Wall

1. Nature of application

Based on nature of application, mortar is divided into two types -
1a. Stone or brick laying mortar
1b. Finishing mortar

1a. Stone or brick laying mortar: When we make brick wall on floor we often use this type of mortar. The proportion of ingredients of this type depend on the binding materials used to make mortar.

1b. Finishing mortar: For general plastering and pointing work, we use this type of mortar. Cement and lime are normally used as binding material for this type.

2. Bulk density of mortar

Based on bulk density of dry mortar it is divided into two types -

2a. Heavyweight mortar
2b. Lightweight mortar

2a. Heavyweight mortar: If the bulk density of dry mortar is 15 kn/m3 and above then it is called heavyweight mortar or heavy mortar. Heavy quartz fine aggregate are generally used in this types of mortar.

2b. Lightweight mortar: When the bulk density of dry mortar is below 15 kn/m3 then it is typed as lightweight mortar. Normally light porous sand are used to produce this type of mortar.

3. Based on building material

Mortar is more often named as binding material used in the mortar. It is five types based on binding materials used to produce it.

3a. Cement mortar
3b. Lime mortar
3c. Gypsum mortar
3d. Gauged mortar
3eSurki mortar
3f. Aerated cement mortar

3a. Cement mortar: Cement and sand are used in this type of mortar as binding material and fine aggregate respectively. The proportion of cement and sand may varies from 1:2 to 1:6.

3b. Lime mortar: lime is used as binding material in this type of mortar. There are two types of lime are normally used in this type. Fat lime and hydraulic lime. Generally, the proportion of fat lime and sand is 1:2 or 1:3. Commonly used proportion of hydraulic lime & sand is 1:2.

3c. Gypsum mortar: This type of mortar is made from gypsum and mostly used in ancient structure.

3d. Gauged mortar: There are two binding materials, lime and cement, are used to produce this type of mortar. Lime has high plasticity and cement has high strength, mixing both produce mortar which is strong, durable and economic.

3eSurki mortar: In this type of mortar surki is used as fine aggregate. Sometimes a proportion of sand is also mixed with surki. And most commonly lime is used as binding material.

3f. Aerated cement mortar: If the air-entraining admixture is mixed with cement mortar than it is called Aerated cement mortar. The admixture is mainly mixed to make the mortar mire plastic and workable.

4. Special purpose mortar

Depending on purpose of uses mortar is classified as following types -

4a. Sound absorbing mortar
4b. Fire resistant mortar
4c. X-Ray shielding mortar
4d. Chemical resistant mortar
4e. Packing mortar
4f. Lightweight mortar

4a. Sound absorbing mortar: This type of mortar is usedreducing noise level. Cement, lime, gypsum, slag, pumice cinders etc are commonly used as ingredient of this type of mortar.

4b. Fire resistant mortar: when a layer of mortar is used as fireproof shield then it is called fire resistant mortar. By adding aluminous cement to powder of fire bricks this type of mortar is produced.

4c. X-Ray shielding mortar: This is the  heavyweight type of mortar. The bulk density of this type of mortar is around 22 kn/m3. This type of mortar is mainly used on x-ray room's wall and ceiling as a shield to prevent bad effect of x-rays.

4d. Chemical resistant mortar: By adding some special admixture with mortar this type of mortar is produced. It is mainly used to protect structure from chemical attack.

4e. Packing mortar: Packing the oil well this type of mortar is used. The constituents of this type of mortar is cement & sand, cement & loam or sometimes cement, sand & loam.

4f. Lightweight mortar: This type of mortar is used as sound proof and heat proof shield. By adding saw dust, jute fiber and wood powder to the lime mortar or cement mortar this type of mortar is produced.

Mortar is classified by its strength also. I'll discuss them later in another article. So, like our Facebook page to get update.

Update: read the mortar types based on strength here.


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