Types of Estimates in Building Construction

Estimation determines the probable construction cost of a project. Estimating can be done at various stages of project duration depending on the purpose of estimation. First estimation is done before construction starts for the purpose of making budget of the project or bidding the project as a contractor. There are various types of estimation can be done depending on project manual and drawing provided and the purpose of using estimated data.

Types of Estimates in Building Construction

Followings are common types of estimate -

* Detail Estimate
* Unit Based Estimate
* Model Estimate
* Comparison Estimate
* Parametric Estimate

Detail Estimate - This type of estimate includes everything that needs to complete the project as well as overhead and contractor's profit. For this type of estimate, an estimator needs complete set of drawing and instruction manual of the project. This estimate shows required materials, labor, time to complete the project, complete cost details and overhead and also contractor profit. It also includes insurance, bond, equipment and other necessary things that need to complete the project. Estimator for this type of estimating should be experienced person because complete project budget, time duration and contractor profit depends on his visualization.

Unit Based Estimate - This type of estimate is prepared by calculating building area and then multiplying area by predefined unit cost. And then adjusted the cost by considering building height, length, width and other necessary building components. Required documents for preparing this type of estimate is a simple floor plan with measurement and key elevation of the building. This type of estimation is used to check whether the project was designed within owner's budget.

Model Estimate - This type of estimate is prepared based on a model project estimate which is developed before. Preparing this type of estimate needs answering several key questions depending on model project. Such as length and width of building, number of base, size of base, floor height, number of bath etc. Keep in mind that proposed project should be similar to model project. this type of estimate may prepare a details estimate of whole project or a part of project depending on the model project.

Project Comparison Estimate - In this method, an estimator prepares estimate of proposed project by comparing similar completed project. After preparing the comparison estimate, estimator makes adjustment for variation of proposed project with the completed project.

Parametric Estimate - In this type of estimate, an estimator uses equations to prepare the estimate. This equation is the relationship between "parameters" and "cost" of a building project. This estimate is like unit based estimate but more complex than unit based estimate. This type of estimate is done for getting concept of proposed project cost.

There are some other methods are used to determine the project cost in the different location of the world. Nowadays, there are many computer programs available in the market to make the estimation process easy and quick.

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Types of Paints Used in Building Construction

There are many purposes for using paint in building construction. These includes increase the visual appeal of building surface, protect surface against weathering impact, make the surface water proof, protect surface from termite attack and increase the surface durability. In building, you will find four types of places to paint on. Such as -

1. Interior wall and ceiling
2. Exterior wall surface
3. Wooden surface and
4. Metal
Interior and exterior paint

1. Interior wall and ceiling

To increase the visual appeal and smoothness of wall surface and ceiling interior paint is done. Following types of paints can be used as interior paint -

Distemper: Distemper is common type paint used in interior wall and ceiling for protecting and decorating brick wall, concrete and plastered surface. Variety of distemper are available in the market. Such as acrylic distemper, synthetic distemper, dry distemper etc. Acrylic distemper is washable and can be applied on plaster, wall and asbestos. Synthetic and dry distemper are not washable.

Plastic paint: It is also called plastic emulsion paint or interior emulsion paint. It is water base paint. This paint is durable and can be washed. They are available in three categories -

Regular emulsion
Economy emulsion and
Premium emulsion

2. Exterior

Exterior paint must have weather resisting capability. It can be oil based or water based. But oil based paint is not generally recommended for exterior painting. Following types of exterior paint are available in market -

Cement paint- It is water based paint. It gives nice finish to newly constructed building.

Acrylic emulsion- It has high capability to withstand against weathering impact. It gives surface a nice and durable finish.

Textured plaster- It is also emulsion based paint. But the surface protection capability of textured plaster is much better than other emulsion paint.
wood and metal Paint

3. Wood

Traditional paint for wood is varnish. But now a days many people choose modern version of varnish "polyurethane and melamine" for wood finishes. It allows wood grains to see through it unlike varnish.

4. Metal

Enamel paint is commonly used for metal. This is oil based paint.
Following types of enamel paints is used on metal surface in building construction -

a) General purpose enamel paint
b) Synthetic enamel paint
c) Premium enamel paint

a) General purpose enamel paint - This type of enamel paint's protecting capability is lower than other two. But using two coat of this paint can give long protection to metal surface.

b) Synthetic enamel paint - This type of paint gives metal surface a good finish with atmospheric protection. Synthetic enamel paint can also be used on wooden surface.
c) Premium enamel paint - It has excellent protective capability against atmospheric attack on metal. It also gives glossy effect with nice surface finish.

There are also some other places in building construction where special painting is needed. Such as water proofing paint, anti-termite paint etc.

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Terms Used in Concrete Formwork

Many of us say that civil engineering is a boring subject. I also sometimes feel like so. But when I create (complete) a product (building) I feel proud. I'm blogging with this boring subject. So, I always try not to bore you by keeping my post short. That is the reason for not including this post with the post "Concrete Formwork Basic"

There are many terms used during the making of concrete formwork. For better handling the formwork operations those terms are described below for you.
Concrete Formwork Terms
Panel Form: Reusable form, which can be used many times, is called panel form.

Stationary form: Stationary forms are those which can't be reused.

Stripping: We remove formwork after satisfied duration. This removing operation is called stripping.

Propping: Providing vertical support with props is called propping.

Bracing: Protecting props from horizontal moving is known as bracing. Bracing is done by binding one vertical support with others. Generally this binding is done with 12 mm dia rod. Normally bracing is provided at periphery of slab formwork. But, if the slab formwork is too high than bracing is provided on inside vertical support also.

Strut: Inclined supporting system provided to wall-form (such as column) is called strut.

Soffit: Shutter that is used below the structure is called soffit. Such as beam bottom shutter.

Form face: Shutter side which directly contacts with concrete is known as form face.

Camber: To counteract the unavoidable deflection in horizontal member, a desired up place is given to member that is known as camber.

Camber wood: Wood that is used along beam under slab sheet is called camber wood. This Camber wood is used to provide camber to horizontal member to prevent deflection.

There are many other terms used in concrete formwork in the different locations of the world. If you know any please share those with us in the comments…..
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How to Control Concrete Quality when Mixing with Mixture Machine

Concrete quality depends on several factors. Major factors are quality of concrete ingredients, mixing process, carrying, placing, water-cement ratio etc. For large volume of concrete we generally order ready-mix concrete. But For small quantity concrete we always depend on mixture machine. Now-a-days, producing ready-mix concrete in plant is controlled digitally. But in job site, when we produce concrete with mixture machine we have to control that manually. The question is -

How to control concrete quality when mixing with mixture machine?

Spraying water on stone
For controlling concrete quality with mixture machine you have to control following things -

Material quality: Of course, you need quality material for producing quality concrete. For this purpose choose best quality materials as per design requirement. Ensure aggregates are free from dust or other foreign material. Select sharp edge aggregate. See "How to Identify Best Quality Material on Site" for better understanding.
Spray water on coarse aggregate before put into mixture machine. Use fresh drinking water in concrete mix.

Mixing proportion: Select how you'll measure the material quantity. We use a steel box for measuring materials which is called Fera. The volume of a Fera is 0.625 cubic feet. That's equal to half bag of cement. Suppose you will mix concrete at 1:1.5:3 ratio. Therefore, you need one bag cement, three fera fine aggregate (sand) and six fera coarse aggregate (stone chips) for a batch. Employ one person to tally the materials. There are many idle men you'll find on construction site. Such as guard, curing man etc. Employ one of them for counting concrete ingredients and marking on a piece of paper as put into mixture machine's drum. Determine the needed water content for one bag cement. Find this article to know “How to Calculate Concrete Ingredients”.

Mixing: Now start the mixture machine. Put one-third of required materials and one-third of required water into the drum. Then put a bag of cement. After that put the rest of materials and water into the drum. Mix the content properly. Spin the drum for at least 120 sec for properly mixing concrete ingredients after putting all ingredients into the drum.

Test: To check the water content in the mix do slump test. If the slump is higher than specified in the structural notes, reduce slump by mixing extra ingredients into the mixture drum. To increase the slump mix water. To do the slump test follow these procedure described in "This Article".

You also should make concrete cube or cylinder to test the concrete compressive strength. See "How to Make Concrete Cylinder Specimen". If 28 days cylinder test result meets required compressive strength then you made no mistake during mixing concrete and the concrete quality is perfect. If you cube test result doesn't meet design requirement then you should remake the structure.

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Reinforced Cement Concrete – An Overview

RCC Structure

What is RCC?

We know, concrete is strong in compression but it is relatively weak in tension. Concrete's tension resistant capacity is so low that it only can be used in compression member. Steel, on the other hand, extremely strong in tension. So steel and concrete combination is ideal where we need both tension and compression resisting member. Such combination of steel and concrete is called reinforced cement concrete. In short, RCC. When concrete is gained its strength, RCC member works as a single part of structure. Unit weight of RCC is 2400 kg/cu.m.

Materials Used in RCC

RCC composed of mainly two materials. One is concrete and another is steel.

Concrete in RCC: Concrete is an artificial stone produced from mixing cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. In RCC, it provides compressive strength to structure and protect steel from weathering impact.

Steel in RCC: Different grade of steel is used in RCC as per design calculation of structure. Using deformed mild steel bar increase bonding between concrete and steel.

Advantage of RCC

Strength: It has high compressive and tensile strength.

Shape and Size: RCC can be made in any desired shape. Since RCC has steel inside it, the size of RCC member (cross-sectional dimension) can be reduced.

Cost: RCC is more economical than steel.

Fire resistant: As steel of RCC member has concrete cover, it doesn't contact directly with fire, that is why RCC structure is more fire resistant than steel.

Maintenance: It has low maintenance cost with long service life.

Disadvantage of RCC

Concrete takes time for developing its strength. That is why RCC structure needs more time to build than steel structure. It also needs formwork for casting that is also time-consuming.

Producing RCC member involves various operation such as mixing, placing, vibrating and curing. If these operations aren't handled properly, poor quality structure can be produced.

RCC member contains steel inside it. It can hamper the structure quality if not placed properly.

If concrete cover around steel is not sufficient it can be affected by corrosion. Read “Cover for RCC Member”.

Uses of RCC

If you ask me where RCC isn't used, it'll be far easier for me to explain than where RCC is used. However, now-a-days, RCC is used almost any civil structure - from building to bridge and from road to drainage system.

Your Turn:
If have any question about RCC then write in comment. I'll try my best to answer.
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Beam Reinforcement Detailing for Seismic Zone

Placing beam reinforcement isn't difficult. But it needs some technical knowledge. In a seismic zone, it needs extra care. Structural designers provide every detailing in the structural drawing specially for seismic zone (earthquake zone). As a construction professional you should have clear concept about that. In this article you will see typical beam reinforcement detailing for earthquake zone.
Beam reinforcement detailing for earthquake

Types of reinforcing bar used in beam

A beam can have following types of bar -

Top bar

Bottom bar

Extra top bar

Extra bottom bar


Face bar

Top bar:
Top bar is placed in the compression zone of beam. It is placed 2 inches below (typical) from the beam's top outer face for maintaining clear cover. It should have 90 degree hook in the both end where beam ends. Hook length should be minimum 12 times of bar dia. If you need to provide lap than place the lap in the middle of beam. Lap length should be minimum 48 times of bar dia.

Bottom bar: Bottom bar is placed in the tension zone of beam. Beam bottom bar placement is same as top bar. But lap of bottom bar should be on the beam support.

Extra top bar: Extra top should be provided on the beam support at top of beam and extent up to one-third of beam's clear span both side of support.

Extra bottom bar: provide extra bottom bar in the middle of beam's bottom portion.

Stirrup: Stirrup often called ring in the construction sector. It is the share reinforcement. Typical Stirrup size is 3 inches less than beam size in both direction for maintaining clear cover. Hook of beam stirrup should be 135 degree angle and hook length not below 3 inches. Place the hooks on both sides of beam top alternatively. Stirrups spacing of beam are always specified in the structural drawing by designers. If not specified than follow the rules showed in the image above.

shear reinforcement for earthquake zone

Face bar: It is also called middle bar or additional bar. Face bar is provided when beam height exceeds 2'-6" feet. It is placed on the middle portion of beam.

Always keep in mind that there should be minimum one inch gap between reinforcing bars. So, use 25 mm steel bar as a spacer if you have to place two layer reinforcement in the beam.

Placing reinforcement in beam I described here is typical details for earthquake zone not in depth details. I will describe reinforcement detail for every type of beam here in "ACE". So subscribe by RSS or like "facebook page" for free update.
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Concrete Formwork Basic

This post will give you the overall view of concrete formwork.
column formwork
Concrete Formwork

What is formwork?

If we want to make something to a particular shape than we need a mould. Mould is called form in concrete industry. Procedure of making concrete form is called formwork. Therefore, we can say, Formwork is the making a temporary construction to give fresh concrete a shape and support till it hardens. Concrete form and concrete formwork both words express same meaning.

Types of Formwork

Depending on using purpose, formwork are two types - wall form and slab form.
Wall form: Form, which are used in vertical member, such as column, is called wall form.
Slab form: Form used for horizontal member, is called slab form.
There are some other types of formwork available in construction sector. Such as Traditional form, Permanent form, Tunnel form etc. That will be discussed later here on "ACE". At this stage of writing this post, one thing came into my mind that I would like to make clear to my readers. Someone categorized formwork depending on materials used for formwork. Such as Timber formwork, Steel formwork etc. But actually that isn't the types of formwork. That is the "Types of formwork material".

Works involve in making concrete formwork

Making concrete formwork involves following basic operations -

Propping and centering

Short descriptions of each operation is given below:
Propping and centering: This operation is done depending on types of formwork. If you are making horizontal formwork then it is done first. If you are making vertical formwork then it is done after shuttering. This operation involves giving support to structure and workers for next operation.
Shuttering: shuttering is more often used as similar meaning of formwork. But it is a part of making formwork. This is the main operation of formwork. In this operation side and bottom shutter of RCC members are fixed. For vertical RCC member it is done before propping. And for horizontal RCC member it is done after propping.

Leveling: Its name describe all about it. It is done to give concrete member a desired place and shape.

Cleaning: In this operation cleaning, watering or oiling is done to formwork.

Formwork materials

Commonly used formwork materials are timber, steel and plywood etc. See "Types of concrete formwork material".

Required duration for removing concrete formwork

Vertical side: Vertical side of beam, column, and wall requires 24 hours to open.
Slab formwork: Slab can be removed after 3 days but props should be left under. These left props can be removed after 7 days if the slab span below 15 feet. If slab span above 15 feet, than it requires 14 days.

Beam Soffits: Beam Soffit requires 7 days to remove. But props should be left under. Pros can be removed after 14 days if the beam span below 20 feet. For over 20 feet beam span it requires 21 days.

During the concrete formwork operation, we often use many terms such as stripping, propping etc, as a construction professional, we should be familiar with those terms. I will write about those terms someday here in “ACE”.

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Types of Formwork Material

As we described here in "ACE", Formwork is a temporary construction used as a concrete mould. "Formwork" and "shuttering", these two words are often used for same meaning. But "shuttering" actually is a part of making formwork.

Concrete Formwork
Varieties of materials used for making concrete formwork depending on availability of material, economical consideration etc. Formwork can be made using one type of material or combining different types of material.

“Types of Formwork Material”
Below are the common types of formwork material used in concrete construction:
  • Timber
  • Steel
  • Plywood
  • Aluminum
  • Plastic
  • Fabric, etc.
Timber: Timber is a popular formwork material. It has been using from ancient age. We can make concrete formwork using only timber or combining timber with other types of formwork material. Timber is light weight, easy to fix and remove. It's also economical and available in different sizes.

Steel: Steel formwork materials are costly. But it has many times re-usability. It's mainly useful for construction company where repeated uses are possible. Steel formwork materials give excellent finishes to concrete surface. Wide variety of steel formwork materials are available in the market for various purpose of uses. See the "List of Steel Shutter Materials".

Plywood: Plywood is an artificially manufactured wooden material used for making concrete formwork. It is strong, durable and light weight. The availability of different thickness plywood in the market makes it popular for different sizes concreting work. The thickness range of plywood is, from 7 mm to 32 mm. The standard size of plywood mostly used in building construction is 1220 x 2440 mm. It can easily be cut into any size.

Aluminium: Aluminium formwork is getting popular in construction industry. It is easy to fix and remove thus increase worker productivity. It is also many times re-useable.

Plastic: As per experts, depending on the plastic quality, it can be used up to 100 times. The core advantage of this is, it is super lightweight, easy to handle and stack.

Fabric: This is the latest addition to concrete formwork sector. For RCC construction and architectural design work, this is an emerging technology. The flexibility of this material makes it possible to produce concrete at any shape.

Beside these, there are some other materials used for making concrete formwork. Such as, masonry, hardboard, concrete itself. Masonry formwork is used where small concreting work will be done. Sometimes, concrete itself also used as a formwork i. e making small pre-cast RCC members. Whichever material you use for making concrete formwork, the basic of making formwork is same.

Please share your experience of using plastic and fiber material as concrete formwork E655ZJDGJTTN...
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Structural Drawing Sheet Titles in Building Construction

Some time ago, we published an article about "Types of drawing in building construction". In another post, we show the "Architectural drawing sheet titles in building construction". Like that, Structural drawing also contains various sheets of different names. Today we are going to share about this.

Structural Drawing Sheet Titles in Building Construction

Structural Drawing
Below are the common sheet titles prepared for building construction: 
  • Content sheet 
  • Structural Notes 
  • Column layout 
  • Column schedule 
  • Footing layout 
  • Footing details
  • Grade Beam layout
  • Grade Beam details
  • Staircase
  • Under Ground Water Tank
  • Septic tank
  • Lift core
  • Beam and Slab layout
  • Beam details
  • Slab reinforcement 
  • Over Head Water Tank, etc.
Content Sheet: This sheet contains other sheet titles and their page number in it. Page number is mentioned as ST1, ST2, ST3... like this in structural drawing.
Structural Notes: There are two or three sheets are prepared under this title. Structural designer describes essential notes for different structural parts of building in these sheets.
Column Layout: This sheet shows column location and placement related to building's grid line. Architectural drawing also hold this sheet. If there is any wrong measurement between these sheets than architectural drawing is given priority.
Column Schedule: Column schedule shows the column section and reinforcement details and their placement.
Footing Layout: This drawing sheet shows the footing/pile cap layout. It also shows the column placement on footing.
Footing details: More than one sheets are prepared for this purpose. These sheets contain the footing section and placement of reinforcement of footing or pile cap. Sometime, footing size and reinforcement details shown in footing section. But more often separate sheet is used to show the footing size and reinforcement details.
Grade Beam Layout: In some other countries grade beam is called tie beam. In Bangladesh, we call it grade beam. Grade Beam layout contains the location and placement of Grade Beam.
Grade Beam details: This sheet shows the Grade Beam section and reinforcement details and their placement.
Staircase: This sheet shows stair plan, section, reinforcement details and their placement. If one sheet is not sufficient than another sheet is prepared for properly showing staircase.
Under Ground Water Tank: If require, more than one sheets are prepared for this purpose. These sheets show UGWT plan, section and reinforcement details and their placement.
Septic tank: Plan and section of septic tank are shown in this sheet.
Lift core: This sheet contains the plan, section and reinforcement detailing of lift core. Normally one sheet is prepared for this purpose.
Beam and Slab layout: Separate sheet is prepared for different floor. These sheets display the beam placement with related to column. It also shows the slab outline. Sometimes, it shows the slab outline measurement but most of the time it doesn't show any measurement. In that situation we depend upon architectural sheets for measurement.
Beam details: More than one sheet is prepared for this purpose. These sheets show beam's cross-section and longitudinal section and details of reinforcement.
Slab reinforcement: This sheet describes details slab reinforcement and their placement. Several sheets are normally prepared for properly showing slab reinforcement of different floor.
Over Head Water Tank: Like UGWT this sheet shows the OHWT's plan, section and reinforcement details.
Some other drawing sheets also prepared under this type of drawing as required for construction. Such as, for parapet, drop wall and other RCC design work several sheets are prepared for properly executing construction works.
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How to calculate materials for different-ratio concrete

Concrete aggregate
Stone chips

Now-a-days, most of the modern construction company use computer aided software like priosoft for their complete estimating and costing solution. But for on-site job execution we often estimate materials ourselves.

Mix design is commonly referred by mix proportion in a selective zone where same materials are used in concrete. Suppose, in Bangladesh, most of the structural designers refer concrete mix design as ratio in drawing. Because materials of same properties are used in all over the Bangladesh.
The question is,

How Do We Estimate Materials for Different Ratio Concrete?

The most common ratio referred here in Bangladesh for column concrete 1:1.5:3 and for slab 1:2:4. When we mix cement, sand and stone chips at 1:1.5:3 ratio, the concrete strength of 28 days cube test's result comes around 3500 psi. If we mix cement, sand and brick chips at 1:2:4 ratio the 28 days cube test result will come around 3000 psi, which is referred for slab concrete.

I will estimate materials for 1:1.5:3 ratio concrete. After learning this process you will be able to estimate materials for any concrete ratio.

Now lets estimate the required materials for the volume of 100 cft concrete of 1:1.5:3 ratio:

Wet volume of concrete = 100 cft.
Dry volume of concrete= 100 x 1.54 = 154 cft.
Sum of ratio 1:1.5:3, 1 + 1.5 + 3 = 5.5.
So, Cement content in concrete = (154/5.5) x 1=28 cft.
Sand content= (154 / 5.5) x 1.5 = 42 cft.
Stone chips = (154/5.5) x 3 = 84 cft.

As we know, Cement is available as 50 kg bag in the market. The volume of 50 kg cement bag is 1.25 cft. So the required cement is 28 divided by 1.25 equal to 22.4 bag.

Cement : 22.4 bag,
Sand : 42 cft,
Stone chips: 84 cft.

Read More:
How to Estimate Materials for 5" Thick Brick Wall
How to Estimate Ingredients for 3" Brick Masonry Wall?

In this estimation, we use cubic feet as our concrete unit. If you want to use cubic meter, same method can be applied. But that will be time-consuming. The easiest way to estimate concrete materials for different unit is, apply the above result as percentage. That means, Cement content for 100 unit of 1:1.5:3 ratio concrete is 28% (unit will be as concrete unit), Sand is 42% and Stone chips is 84%.

Now lets calculate the water content of concrete. Suppose, water-cement ratio for concrete is specified 0.45. That means, water/cement = 0.45, or W/C = 0.45.
for 1 bag cement, water is, = 0.45 x 1.25 (as we know, 1 bag cement equal to 1.25 cft),
Water = 0.5625 cft.
We know 1 cubic feet water is equal to 28.31685 litre,
So we can write, water = 0.5625 x 28.31685 = 15.92 litre, say, 16 litre.
So One bag cement needs 16 liter of water for 0.45 W/C ratio.
That's it.

Here, one thing should be cleared that someone assume the dry volume of concrete is equal to one and half times of wet volume. But it is better to use 1.54 for calculating dry volume.

If I did any mistake here please let me know by commenting below.... 

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How to make concrete formwork for column with steel shutter

If you want to use concrete formwork for one time then it is better to use timber as a shuttering materials. If you want to use a formwork for many times then “steel shutter materials” is best.
Before we shared "how to make concrete formwork for slab using steel shutter materials”. In this article, we are going to discuss "how to make column formwork with steel shutter". And it is easy to make.

How to make concrete formwork for column with steel shutter

First, make 6" high column kicker so that formwork can be fixed easily. It also prevent cement slurry leakage through bottom of formwork. You can make column kicker with wooden formwork or with steel formwork as you like.
Remove the kicker form next day. In this time, finish the column's reinforcement works. And also combine the two sides of column shutter separatly. Use foam between side's joint to prevent cement slurry leakage.
Column formwork
Foam is wrapped with kicker

After removing kicker form, wrap a piece of foam around column kicker with glue so that cement slurry doesn't penetrate from formwork. See above image how foam is wrapped.
Now start fixing jointed column sides (which we did before) with kicker. Now tighten the nut-bolts properly.
Give support to column with steel props and turn bolts.
Make the column truly vertical by tightening and loosing the props and turn bolts. Check the column is straight and diagonaly correct.
Remember one thing here that we'll pour only half portion of column because we don't want low quality column by putting concrete from too high. For this purpose we make one column side of 5 feet high. Other 3 sides of column shutter, we make up to beam bottom level.
column formwork with steel shutter
Support is given to column formwork

After pouring first portion of column, we just lift the 5 feet column side up to beam bottom level and fix that for pouring next portion of column.
Someone use only 5 feet high column side for all four sides of column. But I will recommend to use only one 5 feet high column side and other 3 side of column formwork should be up to beam bottom level to increase the worker productivity. Because if you make all four column sides 5 feet high then you have to fix all four sides again for pouring 2nd portion of column. That is more time-consuming.
In some other countries, I saw, they pour the full height column concrete at a time. That I don't recommend because it increase the possibility of concrete segregation.

How do you make concrete formwork for column. Please share your ideas in comment……
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