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Placement of main Reinforcement(bar) of footing

Footings transfer loads to earth which is imposed on it. the structure is stand on footings. so it is important that the footings should stable enough to carry the loads which are coming on it. Proper placement of reinforcement in footing is important factor for stability of footing.
No matter, how well a structure is designed if the construction professionals don’t care of placing reinforcement in proper way, the structure won’t stable.
Different countries follow different rules for designing and placement of reinforcement. However, the basics are same. I’m not a specialist of RCC structure designing. I’m just a construction professional. Here I want to share some notes, which we follow during placing reinforcement in footing-
Many of us think that the main reinforcement of footing will be parallel with long length of footing. That is wrong. In pic-01, the main reinforcement is placed parallel with short length of footing. Because the distance between outer face of footing and outer face of column is more in short length than long length of footing.
See the pic-2. The footing is square. The main reinforcement is placed parallel with the greater distance of footing & column face.
So, the theme/theory of placing main reinforcement in footing - “the main reinforcement should be placed parallel with the greater/bigger distance of column face and footing’s outer face.

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Wood based product as construction material

The simple information about wood based product we most commonly use in civil construction.

Veneers: The high quality timbers such as oak, mahogany, maple, cherry etc, are used to make veneers. The thickness of veneer is 0.40mm to 8mm. these are used to make batten boards, laminated boards & plywood. It is also used for cabinet remodelling.

Plywood: Plywood is prepared from the veneers or the thin layers of wood glued together. Plywood is widely used building materials. This is used as door, partition, ceiling, furniture, concrete formwork etc. Plywood is more inexpensive & flexible than plain wood. It is also re-usable. The other benefit of using plywood instead of plain wood is, it is crack & shrinkage resistance.

Fibre board: The fibre boards are hard and non flexible. These boards are also called pressed wood or reconstructed wood. The length varies from 12m to 18m  and width from 3m to 4.5m. The thickness of these boards varies from 3mm to 12mm. these boards are widely used in construction such as concrete form work, internal finishes of rooms, partition wall, flooring material and also used to prepare flush doors. These are also used as insulating materials.
Impreg timber: If timber is covered with resin that is called impreg timber. The timber can be partially covered or fully covered. This kind of timber is used for decorative purpose.
Compeg timber: The making process of compeg timber is same as impreg timber. Only one difference is the curing process of compeg timber. The curing is done under pressure. This kind of timber is more durable than impreg timbers.
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Impacts of hot weather on concreting and protective actions

Concreting on hot weather can be difficult and also harmful for the quality of concrete. The dangerous thing about that is, the quality of concrete can never be fully undone. So, we need to take protective actions for concreting in hot weather.

But the question is, what is hot weather? In which climate condition we can say it’s hot for concreting.

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