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Properties of Hardened Concrete


Fully cured, hardened concrete must be strong enough to withstand the structural and service loads which will be applied to it and must be durable enough to withstand the environmental exposure for which it is designed. If concrete is made with high-quality materials and is properly proportioned, mixed, handled, placed and finished, it will be the strongest and durable building material. Below are the properties of hardened concrete:-

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Properties of fresh concrete

The term fresh concrete means the wet mix of concrete ingredients before they begin to set. In other words, the plastic state of concrete is the fresh concrete. Sometimes it's called green concrete. Actually, When the wet mix of concrete ingredients begin to set but not fully set, it is called green concrete.

And, when the concrete mix is fully set that is called hardened concrete.
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Minimum Cover for Reinforcement in Cast-In-Place Concrete

The clear cover is the perpendicular distance between outer face of bar and the outer face of concrete of cross section of RCC member.

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Name of Brick positions in Wall

Bricks are mostly used building material in the construction industry. When we build masonry wall with bricks, we keep the bricks in various position on wall. In engineering, those brick positions are called in different names. Below are the names of Brick positions in wall:


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Methods of Curing Concrete

Curing of concrete just like feeding a baby to be stronger. To attain design strength curing is the most important step for concrete. The curing of concrete is to control moisture content of concrete and keep the concrete temperature in a suitable range.


The following methods are commonly used for curing concrete:

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Maximum soil bearing capacity of different types of soil

The load of structure is coming on the soil. So we need to know the bearing capacity of the soil. Bearing capacity of soil is used to indicate the maximum load per unit area which is determined by a) Method of loading or b) Method of dropping weight. Dividing the ultimate soil bearing capacity by a safety factor we get the maximum safe bearing capacity of soil which is used to design foundations.

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How to make Cylinder specimen of concrete for compression test

Compression test is done for knowing the compressive strength of hardened concrete. For this purpose, concrete cube test or concrete cylinder test is done in laboratory. But, concrete cylinder or cube for testing is made on site.

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How to mix concrete by hand (hand-mixing concrete)

Now-a-days, Ready-mix concrete is used most of the time. Where Ready-mix concrete is not applicable, mixture machine is used for mixing concrete. Sometimes we need to mix less quantity of concrete for various purposes by hand. So, it is good to know how to mix concrete by hand.



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5 Major Reasons for Collasping Building

I am watching a program on discovery channel last night. That was on the 9/11 American Twin Tower collapse topic. How well designed and well constructed building can collapse in a moment. It was the shameful incident for mankind. It was the shame for us that how some terrorists destroy a modern technology and take many valuable lives.

That was the unexpected collapse of the tower. Beside this, there are many reasons for collapsing a building. If we analyze the reasons of collapsing building we can categories them 5 major heading.

1. Bad design: When an engineer designs the building he calculates various kind of loads, uses some co-efficient as per standard code and properties of building materials. If he makes any mistake in calculation or uses wrong co-efficient or takes inaccurate data of material properties then building can collapse.

building, building collapse, reson for building collapse

2. Faulty Constructions: This is another major cause of collapsing building. If the building is constructed with low quality materials or isn't constructed as per design specifications or not supervised properly or used unskilled construction professionals then the building can collapse. Faulty construction can also be the cause of collapsing another building beside it. the example of this kind of collapse is a 13 storey building which is located on lianhua road, minhang district in shanghai.

3. Foundation Failure: The building is well designed and perfectly constructed but what if it sits on a bad foundation. Bad foundations cause a building to sink or lean as the earth is displaced beneath it. This displacement of earth alters the load distribution of the building so the structure fails to meet the design specifications and building can collapse. There are many example of this kind of building collapse. One of the best known of them is the Leaning Tower of pisa.

Read More: Types of Foundation

4. Extra Ordinary Loads: These loads are often natural. Which are created due to earthquakes, hurricanes and heavy snowfall etc. If the structure unable to carry these kind of loads then the building can collapse.

5. Unexpected Failure Modes: Unexpected failure of structure is difficult to explain. One of best example for this kind of building collapse is world Trade Center.

There are many reasons for collapsing a building. Sometimes a building can collapse due to more than one reason.


Did you see any building collapsed near to you.
Please share the location and reason of the building collapse in the comments.
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