Important Tasks of Construction Mobilization, BCT-3, PH-1

Liton Biswas | 10/31/2013 | | Be the first to comment!
Dear readers I'm extremely sorry for not publishing last posts in scheduled time. I was busy in some personal projects.

In previous post of this building construction tutorial series, we divided complete building construction works into 8 work-phases. In this post we are going to discuss the first phase of building construction that is mobilization.

Mobilization is the preliminary works of any construction project. In a board sense, construction mobilization refers to the processes and tasks that are undertaken before the actual groundwork begins. It needs the following important tasks to be performed -

  1. Temporary Fencing
  2. Labor shed making
  3. Power connection
  4. Water supply and Sanitation
  5. Site Office
  6. Storage
  7. Gathering tools and machineries
  8. Construction documents
  9. Other tasks, etc.

1. Temporary Fencing: The first task of starting construction project is to make fence all around the plot. It secures the plot. You can use signboard, banner, safety instruction, etc on this fence.

building construction tutorial, mobilization


2. Labor shed making: It is now common practice that labors who work on construction project stay in that project. So, it's essential to make a labor shed in the project. Choose a location carefully to make shed so that it doesn't hamper foundation work. Some big companies have permanent labor shed. So they don't need to make temporary labor shed on plot.

3. Power connection: For a construction project you must need continue power supply. So apply for power connection from electrical authority or arrange a generator to fulfill your need.

4. Water supply and Sanitation: As your workers will stay in project you will need pure drinking water and sanitation system for them. Pure drinking water also need for construction works. So, apply for water supply connection from national water supply authority or set a deep tubewell.

5. Site Office: Ofcourse, a project management team will work during the construction period of the project, there will be held meetings among clients, owners, contractors, sub-contractors and stackholders. For them you'll need a site office with proper sanitation and water supply facilities.

6. Storage: For storing building materials, construction equipments and tools you'll need a storage with lock and key.

7. Gathering tools and machineries: Gather necessary tools and equipments on project for construction works

8. Construction documents: Copies of all legal documents such as building permission, electricity, water and gas connection permissions from concerned authority, etc should be arranged and kept in project.

9. Other tasks: Keeping safe the passerby as well as the workers and stuffs from accident providing safety signboard is also included in mobilization. Arranging first-aid box and fire fighting equipments should be included in mobilization.

Sometimes cleaning and levelling the ground are included in mobilization phase of construction. I included those in ground-work phase.

This is the summary post of tasks of the mobilization phase. Some of these tasks need further explanation. I'll describe those in future posts.


Your Turn
Do you want to add any other task/tasks in mobilization phase of construction? Please share in comment...
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8 Work-Phase of a Building Construction Project, BCT-2

Liton Biswas | 10/14/2013 | | Be the first to comment!
In the previous post of this "building construction tutorial series" I briefly discussed about soil investigation, structural designing and planning of a building. After successfully completing that process, a contractor is selected by bidding process for constructing the building and a complete set of drawing is handed over to the contractor.

Here some things should be explained so that you can understand the process clearly.

Some construction company buy land and employ consultant to design and make plan for the building. This type of company doesn't need to go through the bidding process for selecting contractor (direct contractor). They generally employ sub-contractors for various work phase. They normally manage the project by their own project management team.

But when you are making your own building you have to employ contractor to complete the project because you don't have construction instrument and project management team. You just finance the project, the rest will be done by contractor.

The above explanation doesn't need to include in this tutorial. Because, I started this tutorial for construction professionals. I described this so that beginners can understand the whole process well.

Now our actual tutorial is started from here.

After taking building permission for starting construction from government authority you can proceed.

building construction tutorial

8 Work-Phase of a Building Construction

Whatever you call these phases, construction-phase or work-phase, a typical building construction involves following sequence of work-phase -

  1. Mobilization
  2. Ground work
  3. Sub-Structure work
  4. Super Structure work
  5. Masonry work
  6. Services work
  7. Finishing work, and
  8. Completion.

1. Mobilization: Mobilization is the process of making ready the plot for starting construction. It includes making fence all around the plot, making labour shed, ensuring services facilities, transferring construction tools and equipments to the plot, etc. Read more about "Mobilization" here.

Read more: 7 Preliminary Works to Do Before Starting a Construction Project

2. Ground work: Ground work includes cleaning the plot, levelling ground, bench-marking etc.

See: 6 Ground Work to Prepare a Land for Building Construction

3. Sub-Structure: Parts of structure which are contacted with earth is called sub-structure. Such as -

  • Foundation
  • Short/Neck column
  • Grade/Tie beam
  • Ground floor, etc.

4. Super Structure: The parts of structure above ground is the super structure. Such as -

  • Column
  • Slab and Beam
  • Staircase
  • Parapet, etc.

5. Masonry work: Masonry work includes -
  • Masonry wall work
  • Plaster work, and
  • Tile work, etc.

6. Services work: Services works are -

  • Electrical work
  • Sanitary and Plumbing work
  • Air-Conditional work, etc.

7. Finishing work: Typical finishing works in a building are -

  • Painting work,
  • Wooden work,
  • Aluminium work,
  • Metal work, etc.

8. Completion: This is the last stage of construction of a project. This includes -

  • Final touch
  • Cleaning
  • Final inspection, and
  • Handover.

The above discussed "8 work-phase" are the typical stages for completely constructing a building. I designed this "building construction tutorial series" based on those "8 work-phase".

As every work-phase contains several other work-items, I'll discuss every work-item separately in this tutorial series. So, please subscribe to ACE via EMAIL or RSS to get update when it happens.

Read previous post of this "building construction tutorial series" here.


Your Turn
How would you like to divide building construction works into phases? Please share in comments...

 
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Soil Investigation Basics for Engineering Purpose

Liton Biswas | 10/09/2013 | | | Be the first to comment!
Soil investigation is done for various purpose. In this post I'll describe the soil investigation basic for engineering purpose.

We all know, it is essential to investigate the soil of the selected plot on which a structure will be constructed.

Based on soil investigation a soil report is prepared for the purpose of designing the building foundation. When an engineer designs building foundation he/she must carefully read the report and designs the foundation based on the data provided in the report.

Soil investigation basic
 

Why soil investigation is required for designing foundation?

Soil investigation is required for the following purposes -

  • To know the allowable bearing capacity of foundation for proposed building.

  • To know the depth and type of foundation for the proposed building.

  • To know the allowable passive resistance for the foundation of proposed building.

  • To know the type, grading and nature of soil.

  • To know the ground water level.

Methods of soil investigation

The common methods of soil investigation are -
  • Inspection
  • Test pits
  • Probing, and
  • Boring.

Inspection: In some places you don't have to investigate much. You'll get enough data to design the foundation of the proposed building by just inspecting the plot. This method of soil investigation includes know the geological condition of the plot, getting data about neighbour buildings, their foundation type and depth, etc.

Test pits: This is done to collect soil samples for detail analysis. In this method several pits are dug by hand or excavator. The depth of pit is below 5 feet so that one can have visual inspection. Several samples are collected from the pit of both disturbed and undisturbed soil.

Probing: In this method a 25 mm or 40 mm diameter steel bar is driven into the ground till solid soil strata is found. It is normally driven by hammer. The penetration and withdrawl of the steel rod is closely observed to know the nature of soil layer.

Boring: In this method several bore holes are made for the purpose of collecting soil sample from below the ground. Then the collected sample is analysed for preparing the soil report.

Typical steps of soil investigation

Soil investigation involves following steps -
  • Details planning for the sequence of operations.

  • Collecting the samples of soil from the plot.

  • Determining the soil characteristics by conducting field tests.

  • Study the condition of ground water level.

  • Collecting ground water sample for chemical analysis.

  • Soil exploration.

  • Testing all collected samples in the laboratory.

  • Analysis the test results.

  • Preparing report.

Based on this prepared report a structural engineer designs the foundation of structure for the proposed plot.
 
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Step by Step Building Construction Tutorial Series, BCT-1

Liton Biswas | 10/07/2013 | | 1 Comment so far
I've searched many times in google if I find complete "building construction tutorial" step by step. But I haven't.

When a student study in college curriculum, he/she doesn't have much knowledge about practical construction procedure. Because, theoretical knowledge is much more different from practical knowledge.

building construction tutorial, step by step construction tutorial of building
 
In construction field you'll have to solve many problems which you'll not find in books of college curriculum. So, as I promised before, I've decided to publish complete building construction tutorial step by step from starting to completing a project.

I'll publish two posts of this series every week. One in monday and one in thursday. So, please subscribe by Email or RSS to get an update as soon as it happens.

Planning and designing of building:
Construction of a building start with choosing a land. When someone decides to build a building on a plot, he/she just contact with consultant and give brief description of his/her plot. Consultant then visits the plot and employ an architect to make plans for the building.

Architect visits the plot before making plan for the building. Then he/she makes plan by mixing his/her creativity with landowner's requirements also by not avoiding the rules and regulation of related governmental authorities. After that the building-plan is revised several times before submitting to government-authority for approval. After making necessary changes suggested by approval authority the building-plan is finally approved.

The purpose of this tutorial series is not explaining the planning and designing process of a building. I just briefly describing the process so that you can easily understand the process before starting construction phase.

Now come to the point where we left.

After getting approval for building-plan, the consultant then go through the soil investigation process to know the soil condition of the plot. Based on this soil investigation report, the structural engineer designs the building.

When the design is ready and approved, it is sent for construction.

Construction needs a complete set of drawings which includes structural drawings, architectural drawings and services drawings.

See: Types of Drawing in building Construction

A contractor or construction department then employ his construction team to complete the project.

See: Construction Project Management Team

Project management team then plans how to start the project and makes schedule for every work-phase for completing the project.

Dear readers, I've started this tutorial series to help you understand the complete building construction process step by step from my practical experience as well as from my educational knowledge. If you have any suggestion to share I'll be glad to hear from you.


Your Turn
If you have any suggestion, remark and guideline about this series please share in comments...

 
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Essential Safety for a Building Construction Site

Liton Biswas | 9/18/2013 | | 1 Comment so far
We often see news about construction-accidents in newspaper. Some accidents are happened due to design faulty, some are for construction faulty and some are for the lack of safety measures in construction site.

Now-a-days, "Safety First" has become a slogan in construction industry. Because more construction accidents happen due to lack of construction-safety than other reasons. In the high-rise building construction the situation is more worst. So, in this post I will share the essential safety measures for building construction.
construction safety

Following are the essential safety measure for a building construction project -
  • Safety Signboard
  • Safety tray
  • Individual safety
  • Void area safety
  • Fire safety

 

Safety Signboard

You might have seen various signboards inside and outside of a construction project. Those are safety signboards.

Signboards can contain symbol/sign or tagline or both. These are placed in two locations - outside of project and inside of project.

Taglines used in outer signboard are -
  • Be careful, construction is going on
  • No Parking
  • Sidewalk, etc.

Inside signboard can have the following tagline -
  • No Smoking area
  • Be careful, void ahead
  • Danger (on electrical board) etc.

Safety tray

After casting a floor slab, the edges of its totally unsecure. We make columns and continue the curing process on that slab. During this work process anyone can fall down accidentally. Moreover, we have to move shuttering materials and building materials on that unsecured floor. So, anytime anything can fall down and hurt passers-by.

To protect these it is essential to make safety tray all around the building on every 3 floor.
Safety tray is made with CI Sheet and MS Angle. The width of safety tray is generally made 8 feet width.

Individual safety

Safety helmet, safety belt, safety shoes, safety goggles, hand gloves, etc are individual safety equipments.

Workers should wear helmet during removing beam or slab shutter or when needed.
If workers are working on outside maccha or anywhere where there is a possibility to fall down, they must wear safety belt.

Every construction workers should wear safety shoes.

During welding work worker must wear safety goggles.

Workers also wear hand gloves when they need to do that.

Void area safety

There may have many voids in a building. Such as lift void, sanitary duct voids, electrical voids, and other architectural voids. These voids should be secured by making temporary masonry wall.

Fire safety

Fire is a major factor for construction accidents. Control smoking inside project strictly. This is the major cause for fire. Hang on "no smoking" signboard where needed. Keep a bucket of sand and a bucket of water ready for emergency. And also keep a fire extinguisher in project.

Special situation demands special safety measure. Such as when you work with brand, hoist and any other heavy equipments and machineries, check them if they are safe for work. If you are going to work inside underground water tank, check first that enough air flow is available there.

Keep a first aid box in project to treat preliminary accidental injuries.


YOUR TURN
If you have anything to share please do it in comments...
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