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Types of Mortar Based on Compressive Strength

"MaSoN wOrK"

Have you seen how I typed above two words?

There is a reason why I typed those this way.  I'll explain it later in this post.

In the meantime, let's get some knowledge about masonry work.

Have you remembered how I explained masonry work in our building construction tutorial series?

If you can't remember,  I'll tell you this in a simple sentence. That is,

"Mortar related work is masonry work".

What is mortar? Mortar is nothing but a mix of binding materials, fine aggregate and water. Read following posts. 

A few days before, I wrote a post about various types of mortar. Read it here.

In this post we will see the types of mortar based on their compressive strength and where to use them.

Here comes the reason I typed above two words.

See those words. There are alternate capital letter in them, M, S, N, O, K. These are the types of mortar.

S mortar, m mortar, n mortar, mortar types

Types of mortar based on their strength

As per ASTM, mortar are 5 types:

  1. Type M 
  2. Type S 
  3. Type N 
  4. Type O, and
  5. Type K 

Among them Type M mortar has highest compressive strength and Type K has the lowest compressive strength.

Below are the details of each:

Type M mortar:

It has the highest strength of all. That is 2500 psi. We use this type of mortar in exterior masonry work and the masonry member which is built at ground or below ground level. This type of members are load bearing wall, footing, retaining wall, driveway etc.

Type S mortar:

This type of mortar also has high compressive strength. It also has high bondability. The strength of type S mortar is 1800 psi.

It is used in the structures which require resistance to significant lateral loads from soil pressure or earthquakes. This type of mortar has excellent durability to use in structures at or below ground and in contact with the soil, such as retaining wall, footing and pavement.

Type N mortar

type N mortar is the most used mortar and number one choice for mason.
This general purpose mortar is suitable for above-ground masonry work. It is recommended for exterior masonry veneer and for interior or exterior load bearing wall. The strength of this type of mortar is 750 psi.

Type O mortar

This mortar has comparatively low compressive strength. It should be used in interior masonry and not recommended to use in exterior masonry. Above ground and non-load bearing structure are suitable for this type of mortar. The compressive strength of this type is 350 psi.

Type K mortar

It has the lowest compressive strength of all and it is rarely used but sometimes used in ancient building for repairing work.  compressive strength of this type if mortar is 75 psi.

At a Glance

Compressive strength of each mortar type:
Type M - 2500 psi
Type S - 1800 psi
Type N - 750 psi
Type O - 350 psi
Type K - 75 psi

Where to use:
Exterior, above ground:
Load bearing masonry structure - N, S, M
Non-load bearing masonry structure - N
Parapet - N, S
Exterior, at or below ground - S, M
Load bearing structure - N, S
Non-load bearing - N

Which mortar type do you use in your building project? Share in comments below...
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Concrete Cover for Reinforcement Bar

What is Concrete Cover for Reinforcement Bar?

The distance between the surface of embedded reinforcement and the outer face of concrete of a RCC member is the concrete cover. We often define it as "concrete clear cover" or "minimum concrete cover" in our daily construction activities. See the image below.

Concrete Cover, concrete clear cover for reinforcement

Why Concrete Cover is very Important for Reinforcement bars?

Maintaining concrete cover for reinforcement bars of a RCC member is must for quality of construction. Following are the reasons why we should maintain concrete cover for reinforcement bars.

  • It protects reinforcement bars from bad effect of weather.

  • Concrete cover acts as a thermal insulation of reinforcement bars to protect it from fire.

  • It provides enough embedding to reinforcement bars to enable them to be stressed without slipping.

Read more:
Considering points During Placing Beam Reinforcement

Types of Rebar Support in RCC Member

See the image below, how the reinforcement bars be affected due to insufficient concrete cover.

Inadequate Concrete Cover
Inadequate Concrete Cover

How do we maintain concrete cover?

There are various types of material and methods used to maintain concrete cover for reinforcement bars.  We commonly use cement concrete block and steel bar's chair for maintaining concrete cover.

Thickness of Concrete Cover for Reinforcement Bars

Concrete cover's thickness depends on the type of RCC member, Diameter of bar used in the member and exposure condition.

It is structural engineer's responsibility to show the concrete cover thickness in drawings. Most of the time we can find them in the structural drawing.

If found you should follow that as specified in the drawing. If you don't find any instruction for concrete cover in the structural drawing you should follow your national code.

Read More:

Structural Drawing Sheet Titles in Building Construction

17 Technical Terms about Reinforcement a Construction Supervisor Should Know

In this post I'll show you the concrete cover as specified in ACI code.

  • Concrete which is casted against earth and exposed to earth, the concrete cover should be not less than 3 inch. Footing is the example of this kind.

  • Concrete which is not casted against earth but exposed to earth or whether, the concrete cover should be -

           * For #5 bar - 11/2 inch

           * For #6 to #18 - 2" inch

  • Concrete which is not exposed to earth or weather, concrete cover should be -

         # For slab, Wall and Joist:

               * For #11 and smaller bar - ¾ inch.

               * For bar #14 to #18 - 1½ inch.

        # For Beam and Column -1½ inch

Whenever said concrete cover means minimum required cover for reinforcement bars. However, excess concrete cover can harm RCC members.

Have you liked this post? Then share your opinion in the comment section below....

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MEP: The Services Work in Construction, bct-7

"Experts say MEP construction involves 40% of total cost of a building construction."

How many times have you heard the term MEP in construction sector?

When I was fresher, just passed out from institute and entered into the construction profession, I heard this term many times. I couldn't understand this clearly that time.

MEP stands for Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing. And these are the services work in construction. We defined it as the 6th work-phase in our building construction tutorial series.

Services Work in Building Construction, MEP Construction, Building Construction Tutorial

6th Work-Phase: Services Work

Following services works involve in building construction:

  • Mechanical Services
  • Electrical Services
  • Plumbing Services

Why should we know about MEP as we are civil construction person?

Well, suppose you completed the reinforcement work of a slab, now what is the next task? Pouring concrete, right?

But there are some other tasks to do before pouring concrete. Such as electrical conduit laying in slab, placing duct for plumbing and electrical services, etc.

As we know, one task is dependent on another task in civil construction, So services works interfere in civil works. 
That's why we should have some basic knowledge about MEP. So that we can understand dependency of tasks.

In this post we'll see which MEP tasks involve in building construction.

MEP Tasks Involve in Building Construction

Mechanical Services work: Mechanical services work performs following task in building construction -

  • HVAC (Heating, ventilation and Air conditioning system)
  • Gas supply system
  • Fire Fighting system
  • Elevators and Escalators work

Electrical Services work: Electrical work begins even before starting actual building construction. That is, it involves from temporary electrical connection in mobilization-phase until finishing of the project.

Electrical services work performs following tasks in building construction -

  • Power Supply
  • Cable TV System
  • Fire Alarm System
  • Security System
  • Telephone and Data network System
  • Emergency Power Supply System (such as IPS: battery-backed power Supply )
  • Backup Power System (Such as Generator)

Plumbing Services: In a simple word, plumbing services performs supplying water and removing waste water in a scientific way in building.

From the above statement we found two tasks which done by plumbing services.

There are also some other tasks performed by plumbing services to support above two task.

We can list them all as following -

  • Water Supply System
  • Drainage System
  • Rain Water Harvesting
  • Water Treatment Plant
  • Water Recycling System

MEP services may do many other tasks. But some task are not related to our building construction. So I didn't include them here.

Did I miss anything here? Please leave a reply in comment section below.

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Types of Masonry Wall

Masonry unit, that is brick or concrete block is laid to or bound together with mortar to make a masonry wall. We make masonry wall for various purpose. Some masonry wall is made for protecting property as barrier, some are for boundary of a property and some are for separating a floor into useable spaces. Some masonry walls are also used as part of structures.

So it is important to know about the masonry wall types so that you can understand where to place which type of wall.

Types of Masonry Wall

Depending on the type of masonry unit used to make masonry wall and their functions, it can be following types:

  • Load bearing masonry wall
  • Reinforced masonry wall
  • Hollow/cavity masonry wall
  • Composite masonry wall
  • Post-tensioned masonry wall

Load Bearing Masonry Wall:
If a masonry wall carries load which is imposed on it to foundation then it's called a load bearing masonry wall. This type of wall is made with brick, concrete block or stone. It acts as a part of structure and is more economical than the RCC frame structure. It can be build as interior or exterior wall.

Types of masonry wall, Load bearing masonry wall

The thickness of load bearing masonry wall depends on the load imposed on it. This wall can be reinforced or non-reinforced.

Reinforced Masonry Wall:
When reinforcement is used in masonry wall then it is called reinforced masonry wall. This type of wall can be load bearing or non-load bearing.

The purpose of using reinforcement in a masonry wall is to help it to withstand against tension forces and heavy compression forces. Reinforcement also protect the wall from cracks and makes the wall strong to fight against lateral forces which forms during earthquake.

Reinforcement is used in this type of wall both in horizontal and vertical direction at required interval.

Hollow/Cavity Masonry Wall:
In this type of masonry wall a cavity or hollow space is left inside the wall to prevent moisture penetrating inside the building from outside. A hollow masonry wall also control inner temperature of a building by preventing outer temperature passing through the wall.

Masonry Wall Types, Cavity Wall

Composite Masonry Wall:
The wall which is constructed using two or more masonry units is called composite masonry wall. Such masonry units can be bricks, stones and hollow blocks.

Masonry Wall types, Composite masonry wall

In this type of wall two wythe of masonry units are bonded together and connected by horizontal joint with reinforcement or steel ties.

To understand what wythe is - read this post.

Post-Tensioned Masonry Wall:
Post-tensioning is done to strengthen a masonry wall to withstand against the tension forces cased by earthquake and wind.

Type of masonry wall, post Tensioned Masonry wall

Running post-tensioning rods between wythes or masonry units and anchoring them into foundation this kind of wall is constructed. After ending curing period of masonry wall the rod is tensioned and anchored at the top of wall with a steel plate.

I thank I explained the different types of masonry wall clearly for easy understanding. If anything confuses you leave a comment below.

Hand Picked Articles for You:
Type of Bricks
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Masonry Work In Building Construction, BCT - 6

We divided our building construction tutorial series into 8 work phases.
Masonry work is the 5th work phase of that series.

First of all, we need to know what is masonry in construction.

What is masonry?
In a simple word, Mortar related works are masonry work. In most of the construction books masonry is described as,

"Masonry is the part of a structure from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar"
In this tutorial series we describe "masonry work" in a board sense. Such as plaster work, it doesn't involve any individual masonry unit or block. But we included this in the masonry work phase. 

So, masonry work means mortar related work.

Construction tutorial, Masonry Wall, Building Construction

What is mortar?
Mortar is a composition of binding materials, fine aggregate and water. Mortar can be various types. Read the following posts to know more about mortar and their types.
Lets see which work-items is related to mortar.
We found three work items are related to mortar.
Masonry wall work
Plaster work, and
Tiles work
Masonry wall: In building we construct slab on different level that is called floor. We separate this floor into different useable space. Such as bedroom, living room, bathroom, store etc. This is done by masonry wall.
For this purpose, we use masonry blocks or bricks. These blocks or bricks are often laid in or bound together by mortar. The man who involved in this work is called mason.
The quality of masonry wall depends on the quality of masonry block, quality of mortar and quality of workmanship involve in this work.
Different kind of blocks are used to make masonry wall. The most common used blocks are brick and concrete block.
A masonry wall consists of following parts -
Wall opening
Door opening
Window Opening
Lintel, etc
Plaster work: To smoother the rough surface of RCC or brick wall plaster is done. It also increases the aesthetic look of the surface and resist the surface from weathering effect.
We generally use cement-sand mortar for plastering work. The proportion of cement and sand varies from 1:2 to 1:6 depending on the surface condition and purpose of plaster. There are various types of mortar used for plastering on a surface in building construction.
We mainly plaster on two types of surface
RCC surface,
Masonry surface
Read following articles to know more about plaster.
Tiles work: Where there is a possibility to contact wall with water there tiles should be fixed. Other than this we fixed tiles on various place of building to increase its aesthetic look and usability. Mainly we fix tiles on two place. One is on wall and other is on floor.
The tiles which are fixed on wall those are called wall tiles and which are fixed on floor is called floor tiles.
Tiles come in various form, sizes, designs and materials depending on home owner's choice.
The 6th work phase of this building construction tutorial series is "Services Work". That will be published within short time. So keep reading and subscribe our newsletter via Email.
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Types of Mortar Used in Civil Construction

Mortar is a composition of water, fine aggregate and binding material. It is a workable plastic paste and used to hold stone and brick or block together. We use various types of mortar for various purpose in construction sector.

Types of Mortar Used in Building Construction

Mortar is classified based on following:

1. Nature of application of mortar
2. Bulk density of dry mortar
3. Binding materials used in mortar
4. Purpose of the use of mortar

Types of mortar, Building Materials, Mortar for Masonry Work
Masonry Wall

1. Nature of application

Based on nature of application, mortar is divided into two types -
1a. Stone or brick laying mortar
1b. Finishing mortar

1a. Stone or brick laying mortar: When we make brick wall on floor we often use this type of mortar. The proportion of ingredients of this type depend on the binding materials used to make mortar.

1b. Finishing mortar: For general plastering and pointing work, we use this type of mortar. Cement and lime are normally used as binding material for this type.

2. Bulk density of mortar

Based on bulk density of dry mortar it is divided into two types -

2a. Heavyweight mortar
2b. Lightweight mortar

2a. Heavyweight mortar: If the bulk density of dry mortar is 15 kn/m3 and above then it is called heavyweight mortar or heavy mortar. Heavy quartz fine aggregate are generally used in this types of mortar.

2b. Lightweight mortar: When the bulk density of dry mortar is below 15 kn/m3 then it is typed as lightweight mortar. Normally light porous sand are used to produce this type of mortar.

3. Based on building material

Mortar is more often named as binding material used in the mortar. It is five types based on binding materials used to produce it.

3a. Cement mortar
3b. Lime mortar
3c. Gypsum mortar
3d. Gauged mortar
3eSurki mortar
3f. Aerated cement mortar

3a. Cement mortar: Cement and sand are used in this type of mortar as binding material and fine aggregate respectively. The proportion of cement and sand may varies from 1:2 to 1:6.

3b. Lime mortar: lime is used as binding material in this type of mortar. There are two types of lime are normally used in this type. Fat lime and hydraulic lime. Generally, the proportion of fat lime and sand is 1:2 or 1:3. Commonly used proportion of hydraulic lime & sand is 1:2.

3c. Gypsum mortar: This type of mortar is made from gypsum and mostly used in ancient structure.

3d. Gauged mortar: There are two binding materials, lime and cement, are used to produce this type of mortar. Lime has high plasticity and cement has high strength, mixing both produce mortar which is strong, durable and economic.

3eSurki mortar: In this type of mortar surki is used as fine aggregate. Sometimes a proportion of sand is also mixed with surki. And most commonly lime is used as binding material.

3f. Aerated cement mortar: If the air-entraining admixture is mixed with cement mortar than it is called Aerated cement mortar. The admixture is mainly mixed to make the mortar mire plastic and workable.

4. Special purpose mortar

Depending on purpose of uses mortar is classified as following types -

4a. Sound absorbing mortar
4b. Fire resistant mortar
4c. X-Ray shielding mortar
4d. Chemical resistant mortar
4e. Packing mortar
4f. Lightweight mortar

4a. Sound absorbing mortar: This type of mortar is usedreducing noise level. Cement, lime, gypsum, slag, pumice cinders etc are commonly used as ingredient of this type of mortar.

4b. Fire resistant mortar: when a layer of mortar is used as fireproof shield then it is called fire resistant mortar. By adding aluminous cement to powder of fire bricks this type of mortar is produced.

4c. X-Ray shielding mortar: This is the  heavyweight type of mortar. The bulk density of this type of mortar is around 22 kn/m3. This type of mortar is mainly used on x-ray room's wall and ceiling as a shield to prevent bad effect of x-rays.

4d. Chemical resistant mortar: By adding some special admixture with mortar this type of mortar is produced. It is mainly used to protect structure from chemical attack.

4e. Packing mortar: Packing the oil well this type of mortar is used. The constituents of this type of mortar is cement & sand, cement & loam or sometimes cement, sand & loam.

4f. Lightweight mortar: This type of mortar is used as sound proof and heat proof shield. By adding saw dust, jute fiber and wood powder to the lime mortar or cement mortar this type of mortar is produced.

Mortar is classified by its strength also. I'll discuss them later in another article. So, like our Facebook page to get update.
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How to Estimate Materials for 5" Thick Brick Wall

Brick wall is used to separate a floor in a different usable space. Such as bed room, living room, toilet, kitchen, store etc.

We use different thickness of brick walls for this purpose. The thickness can be 3 inch, 5 inch and 10 inch. We normally make 10 inch thick brick wall at periphery and 5 inch thick brick wall as internal partition wall.

Whatever you are, a house owner, a civil engineer, a construction supervisor, a civil contractor or a builder, you should estimate the required raw materials for the brick walls which you plan to build.

In this post i'll show you how to estimate the required raw materials for 5 inch thick brick wall. The raw materials we use to make brick wall are brick, cement and sand. 
Estimate, brickwork, masonry work

Lets take a 10 feet long and 10 feet high brick wall for our estimation project. Then, area of our wall is,

10' x 10'= 100 square feet.

As our wall thickness is 5 inch, so the wall's volume is,
100 sft x 5 inch =41.67 cft (5" = 0.42)

As we know, we make the masonry brick wall with cement-sand mortar. The ratio of the mortar we use for 5 inch thick brick wall is 1:4.

You should read the following posts to know more about this - 

The brick size we use to make brick wall is 9.5" x 4.5" x 2.75" which will be 10" x 5" x 3" after jointing with mortar.

Volume of one brick with mortar is, 10" x 5" x 3" =0.08715 cft. (1 inch = 0.08 feet)

So, the required bricks for our wall are,

wall volume divide by one brick volume. 

That is,

41.67/0.08715 =478 nos. These are required bricks for our wall. 

Now, we'll estimate required mortar. If we deduct the volume of unmortared brick from our wall volume, that is our mortar volume. 

Lets see - 

Wall volume is 41.67 cft, 
Total brick volume (excluding mortar) is,

478 x 9.5" x 4.5" x 2.75" =32.52 cft. 

So, the mortar volume is, 
41.67-32.52 =9.15 cft. 

This is the wet volume of mortar. The dry volume of mortar is,
9.15 x 1.50 = 13.73 cft.

As we know, cement-sand ratio is 1:4, then cement content in dry mortar is,

13.73 /(1+4) x 1 = 2.75 cft

As cement is measured by bag and we know 1 bag contains1.25 cft cement so, 
2.75 cft cement equal to 2.75/1.25= 2.20 bag cement.

If we deduct cement volume from dry mortar volume then we will get sand volume.

That means,
13.73 - 2.75= 10.98 cft.

Required materials for 10' x 10' brick wall, we found -

Brick - 478 nos, we can assume this 500 nos.
Cement - 2.16 bag, we can assume this 2 bag.
Sand - 10.98 cft, we can assume this 11 cft.

That's it.

Here is full calculation process,

Wall volume,
10' x 10' x 5"=41.67 cft (5" = 0.42, cft means cubic feet).

One brick volume with mortar,
10" x 5" x 3" =0.08715 cft. (1 inch = 0.08 feet)

Required brick,
41.67/0.08715 =478 nos,

Total brick volume (excluding mortar) is,
478 x 9.5" x 4.5" x 2.75" =32.66 cft.

Wet volume of required mortar is, 
41.67-32.52 =9.15 cft.

Dry volume of mortar is,
9.15 x 1.50 = 13.73 cft.

cement content in dry mortar is,
13.73 /(1+4) x 1 = 2.75 cft
2.75/1.25=2.20 bag cement.

Sand volume,
13.73 - 2.75= 10.98 cft.

How do you estimate materials for brick masonry wall? Share in comments.
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5 Reasons to Choose Readymix Concrete over On-site Machine-Mix Concrete

Readymix concrete, RMC as it is commonly called, refers to concrete that is specially manufactured in a plant for deliver to construction site in a hardened state. Another form of concrete we use to cast our concrete members, that is on-site machine-mix concrete.

Readymix Cincrete, Reason to choose readymix concrete, Concrete Mixing

There are many reasons to prefer Readymix concrete over on-site machine-mix concrete. Here are top 5 reasons -

5 Reasons to Choose Readymix Concrete:

1. It's Time Saving: if you want to use on-site machine mix concrete, you have to order concrete ingredients for purchase and stack them on you site first. There are lots of process in between that take more time. Sometimes it's difficult to get the job done if the required materials are not supplied on due time. On the other hand, readymix concrete can save you from such hassles as it is professionally handled by supplier.

2. Its space-saving: As a construction professional, I personally always face this problem. That is space shortage in construction project. You know, there are variety of materials to store up, such as rod, shuttering materials, brick or block etc. And there are variety of machineries also to set up, such as, generator, cutter machine, roof hoist or tower hoist, etc. And you have to acquire a space for site-office also. There are a lot of space consuming things available on a construction project. More often, there are no space to stack concrete ingredients at all. At this situation readymix concrete is the better option for concreting.

3. Its economical: On-site concrete mixing process involves labors for concrete mixing, transporting of concrete ingredients and concrete mixing equipments & machineries, which are very costly compared to readymix concrete. So it is economical to prefer readymix concrete over on-site concrete mixing.

4. It reduces wastage: Readymix concrete is one of the best option to reduce the wastage. Because, on-site concrete mixing method involves lot of wastage during transit of concrete making components and mishandling of ingredients during the mixing process.

5. It can produce large amount of concrete: It's almost impossible to produce large amon of concrete with on-site mixing process. In that situation, readymix concrete is the only solution for major construction project.

As a civil engineer, I know that concrete quality is a major factor for any kind of RCC structure. On-site machine-mixing involves manually putting concrete ingredients into the machine by pan. Most of the time, its difficult to control the proportion of concrete ingredients. Thus reduce the quality of concrete. On the other hand, ready mix concrete mixing process do that automatically which assure  the quality of concrete.
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5 Things to Consider Choosing a Ready Mix Concrete Supplier

You decided to cast your RCC members with "ready-made" concrete. Ready-made concrete is always called "ready mix" concrete. There are many reasons to choose ready mix concrete over machine mix concrete. That is another topic.

When you choose ready mix concrete as your option, the frist step is to select a supplier who will meet your requirements. This is not so easy as we think. There are many reasons to consider when choosing a ready mix supplier.

Choosing readymix supplier, concrete, casting

Things to consider to choose ready mix concrete supplier -

1. Distance: The american concrete institute suggests that concrete must ba discharged within one and half hours of being batched. So, the further the distance of plant from your construction site the higher the chance of delay. It'll also increase transportation cost. So select the plant as nearest as possible. You can ask some ready mix supplier to suggest a nearest one.

2. Experience & reputation: Always choose a supplier that has experience and a reputation in this sector. Conduct a little survey, ask someone who has experience in this field to suggest a reputed supplier for you.

3. Service quality: Even some inexperienced suppliers may have experienced professionals. They may serve you better. But, sometimes experienced and reputed supplier may provide you inexperienced professionals. So discuss with them and ask them to provide experienced professions so that you can pour concrete smoothly. Otherwise, it'll take long to finish your casting. As a result, project cost will increase.

4. Truck number & sizes: Before choosing supplier, know about their the truck numbers and sizes. Because if their truck sizes are big and your project is located on narrow road side then there'll be hassle to reach the truck. On the contrary, if your job site is located on bigger road side and the company has small trucks then it'll take time to finish your casting. Similarly, Number of available trucks also affect the casting time. So choose carefully that suits you best.
You can invite supplier's representative to visit your job-site for this purpose.

5. Take a visit to plant: Last but not least, you should have a visit to ready mix plant to justify the concrete ingredients the supplier will supply  you.

If everything is perfect as you want, you may now process an order for ready mix concrete with the supplier.
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Preparation for Constructing RCC Slab

In building, slab is a major component of super structure. When you decide to make a Rcc slab, you should take some preparation. Such as -

Shutter: what kind of shutter materials you will use?

There are several types of shutter materials you can use to support amature concrete. Popular shutter materials for slab are, wooden plank, bamboo, plywood, scaffolding, steel shutter, shutter grill, ms hollow box, plain sheet etc. Decide which type of shutter materials you will use for you slab. Estimate how much do you need. Order them first.

Read moreSlab formwork using steel shutter.
Types of Formwork Material.

Rcc slab, slab shuttering,

Steel bars: Steel is the backbone of rcc. Estimate the required quantity of steel bar for slab and beam. It'll take some time to estimate. But estimate carefully, otherwise, it'll cost you more.

Concrete: Two types of concrete mixing are used to cast slab: Ready-mix concrete and machine-mix concrete. Hand-mix concrete are rarely used in slab casting.

Decide first which concrete mix you'll use to cast your slab. If you choose to use ready-mix concrete then choose the quality readymix supplier. If you want to use machine-mix concrete then you need coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and cement. You also need a mixture machine and a vibrator. If you don't have, you can hire them.

Estimate the required quantity of concrete ingredients and order for them. You also need fresh drinking water for concrete mixing. make sure the availability of that.

Electrical: now a days, concealed electrical wiring are usedeverywhere. So, you need to lay electrical pipe in the slab before casting. Estimate the required quantity of electrical pipe. If you don't know how to estimate that you can consult with an electrical engineer. Order for the required pipes.

Sanitary: study the "sanitary and plumbing drawing" for the layout of drainage system of toilets and rainwater. You can put the pipes for drainage system before casting or you can make hole later for that purpose. But it is better to put pipes before casting slab than make hole later.

 Read also: Slab Formwork Checklist

So far your preparation is done properly. Now you can proceed to construct a RCC slab.

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